The author made an endeavor to explore such items of Ijtihad as concept, essence and significance considering it as a rational source of Islamic law from the point of view of its role in upspringing and development of Islamic law schools, so called mazhabs. The issues related to reasons and factors of Ijtihad rise, its place in ensuring a dynamism of Islamic law, peculiarities of its influence over the process of law school genesis are disclosed through the prism of regularities of the modern theory referring to law schools. The author determines a judicial essence of the grounds which caused the apparition of Ijtihad, deviousness and dynamism inherent in Ijtihad are comprehended; such issues are canvassed as concept, types and predestination of Ijtihad, subjects possessing right for the former with their provisions and characteristic features. Crisis phenomena and their affect upon a subsequent evolution of law school are revealed, here refer the periods of formation and development of Ijtihad as well.
Ijtihad, the Koran, the Sunnah, tabiun, mujtahid, justice, law schools, the school of ahl al-raj, the school of ahl al-hadith
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